Module 6 Project Deliverables: Waste Walk & Root Cause Analysis

Module 6 Project Deliverables: Waste Walk & Root Cause Analysis

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Module 6 Project Deliverables: Waste Walk & Root Cause Analysis


Submit the Waste Walk and Root Cause Analysis deliverables of your project.

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Introduction to Perfection

The final principle of Lean is Perfection. Perfection means continually reviewing all processes to identify and eliminate waste, create flow, and establish pull until a perfect state is attained.

A perfect state includes only value-add process – no waste, no waiting, no wasteful transport, no excess inventory and no processes the customer would be unwilling to pay for: zero defects. That’s beyond the 3.4 defects per million opportunities benchmark that Six Sigma sets.

Perfection is the understanding that we will continuously work on the process by small incremental improvements through Kaizen. It’s all about the journey, not destination. Once we institute a consistent method of continuous improvement, we can continually improve and work on perfecting processes for the goal of zero defects.

This section will cover a lot of tools to improve processes and achieve perfection, such as:

• Failure Mode and Effects Analysis • Poka-yoke • 5S principles • Total productive maintenance • Standard work

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Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)


The FMEA acronym stands for failure modes and effects analysis

• It is a tool used to select and prioritize actions • The questions that an FMEA answers are:

o What might cause a problem?  Risk may be to the product or service itself, e.g., an electrical design

flaw that may cause a short circuit  Or risk may be in the ability for the product or service to introduce

potential harm or safety issues to the customer, e.g., Suicide Prevent Hotline staffed with unqualified personnel

o What is the risk assessment outcome? o What are the next steps for the product or service?

• Failure modes and effects analysis is a structured approach to assess the magnitude of potential failures and identify the causes of each potential failure

• Corrective actions are then identified and implemented to reduce or prevent the potential of a failure occurrence

• FMEA is a prevention-based strategy. It is utilized to anticipate potential failures, identify potential causes for these failures, prioritize the failures, and subsequently take action to reduce, mitigate, or eliminate these failures

• FMEAs can be done from either a product / service or a process step perspective. They are typically called either a product or process FMEA

FMEA Sequence of Steps

A FMEA is used to make improvements by following this sequence of steps: 1. Define the potential failure modes. What could go wrong? 2. Define the potential mechanisms of failure 3. Define the potential effects of the failure 4. Rate the severity (SEV) of the failure 5. Rate the probability of the occurrence (OCC) of the failure 6. Rate the effectiveness of the controls for prevention or detection (DET) of the


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7. Multiply the severity (SEV), occurrence (OCC), and detection (DET) ratings together to calculate a risk priority number (RPN)

8. Sort by RPN from highest to lowest 9. Define actions to be taken to address highest RPN items

Risk Priority Number (RPN) The RPN is a standard method for applying a rating score to each identified risk. To

determine a risk priority number, a severity (SEV), an occurrence (OCC) and a detection

(DET) score are assigned.

• Severity (SEV) uses a common industry scale of 1 to 10, with 1 representing no effect and 10 representing a very severe effect

• Occurrence (OCC) indicates how likely the cause is. A common industry scale is used, with 1 indicating not likely and 10 indicating inevitable

• Detection (DET) is then determined using a common industry scale by assessing the likelihood that current controls will prevent or detect the cause of the failure mode. A 1 indicates effective controls, while a 10 indicates highly ineffective or no control

To determine the risk priority number (RPN), we would multiply our SEV, OCC, and DET scores together.

FMEA Priorities

The priorities of an FMEA are based on:

• Potential health and safety issues that may be introduced by the product or service as a result of design or defect, or by interaction between the customer and the product and/or service

• Repetitive issues that the company faces • Top-down projects that management has initiated as improvement projects • Management’s strategic vision and selection of priorities for the business • Innovation so that the business can grow

FMEA Issue Criteria

The three main criteria for selecting issues to addressed from a FMEA are:

• The highest RPN numbers

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• Major pain points that employees or customers complain about • Main causes of efficiency losses that are reported repeatedly

FMEA Examples

Example 1 – family BBQ

• A potential failure mode could be the availability of equipment • The potential failure effect could be not having a BBQ due to the lack of equipment

availability • The potential cause would be not reserving equipment with adequate notice • We now determine our RPN:

o SEV would be a 9 because we are unable to have the BBQ o OCC would be a 3 since it is not likely to occur o DET would be 1 because there is a high chance of detection o The RPN would 9 times 3 times 1 or 27

• Please note that we used 1, 3, or 9 scores instead of a complete 1 to 10 scale on this example. This allows a greater distinction between issues. However, the scale used is at your discretion as long as it is consistent

Example 2 – Hospital Emergency Room

During the completion of an FMEA, the facility addition project team determined that using the south entrance to the hospital emergency room is causing a delay in cardiac patients being triaged. The new facility addition under evaluation does not appear to address this issue.

• The SEV would be a 9 because all cardiac patients should have direct unobstructed access to the main ER

• Based on cardiac patient volume in the south section of the ER, this situation is likely to occur about 10% of the time. The OCC is a 7 because, while the volume is low, the risk to the patient continues to be high

• The DET is a 3 as the triage staff must divide their time between both areas of the ER and are notified of on the arrival of cardiac patients

• The RPN score is 189 • The nursing director has directed that the south entrance to the ER be made off

limits for the arrival of cardiac patients. In addition, working with the director of facilities an assessment of routine hospital flow in the area will be completed by end of the week to implement changes. However, a security guard will be assigned on each of the busiest shifts to keep foot traffic moving in the area immediately outside the ER entrance. Car and ambulance traffic at both entrances of the ER will be

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immediately uncongested to allow ambulances with cardiac patients’ priority access. This will be completed overnight. Ambulances must use the north entrance beginning tomorrow for all cardiac patients

• Finally, the plans for the new facility addition will be reviewed by the faculty project team to identify solutions to improve any access and congestion issues

FMEA Layout

The graphic below shows the layout for a typical FMEA:

Row No.

Product or

Process Step

Failure Mode

Failure Effect

SEV Causes of

Failure Mode

OCC Controls DET RPN


Understanding the severity of failures along with how often the causes of failures occur – followed by how easy the issue can be prevented or detected – makes an FMEA extremely useful as a prioritization tool.

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Poka-yoke is a Japanese term translated to mean error proofing or mistake proofing. It is used to address process variation caused by human error.

History of Poka-Yoke

The term poka-yoke (poh ka yoke) was developed by Shigeo Shingo, one of the fathers of Lean. In 1961, he was visiting a plant that was doing some very simple assembly. Two springs and two buttons were assembled to create an on/off switch. However, occasionally, a spring was getting left out, and the mistakes were not being discovered until the parts got to the parent company. This created all kinds of consternation. They had to send an inspector to the parent company to do the sorting out, and it was just time-consuming, expensive, and irritating.

So, Shigeo Shingo began to think, how does somebody forget something? What does that mean? And he arrived at the conclusion that there are two ways we forget:

1. We occasionally miss something 2. We sometimes forget that we have even forgotten something

So, he developed some simple error-proofing techniques, such as checklists. This also led him to develop the term baka-yoke, which was to idiot-proof. However, what he found in discussing that with people is that it placed the focus in the wrong place. That put the emphasis on the operator, not on the process. That was not his intent. His intent was to make sure that the process itself was error-proofed, so the term was changed from baka- yoke to poka-yoke, which is to error-proof.

Poka-Yoke Approaches and Methods

Poka-yoke uses two approaches:

1. Control systems • Control systems stop the equipment when a defect or unexpected event

occurs. This prevents the next step in the process to occur so that the complete process is not performed

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2. Warning systems • Warning systems signal employees to stop the process or address the issue at

the time

The methods for using Poka-Yoke systems are contact methods, fixed-value methods, and motion-step methods.

• Contact methods are simple methods that detect whether products are making physical or energy contact with a sensing device

• Fixed-value methods are normally associated with several parts to be attached to a product or a fixed number of repeated operations occurring at a process

• The motion-step method senses if a motion or step in the process has occurred in an amount of time

Poke-yoke Examples Example 1

The widespread use of ATMs has certainly made banking more convenient and shows no signs of diminishing usage. However, early on, the banks encountered a very inconvenient problem; customers regularly drove off from the ATM, leaving their debit cards in the card slot of the ATM. A simple but effective poka-yoke has been incorporated in the ATMs so that an alarm sounds and continues to sound until you have taken your card from the slot. This type of poka-yoke can be thought of as an encounter error-proofing example since it intervenes in the service encounter and attempts to prevent a mistake (in this case, a mistake by the customer).

Example 2

A very common poka-yoke is involved every time we purchase fuel for our automobiles. When unleaded fuel was introduced, there were many automobiles on the road that still used leaded fuel. In order to prevent leaded fuel from being placed in unleaded automobiles, the size of the fuel inlet was changed so that the leaded fuel dispense nozzle would not insert. The same solution is used to differentiate between unleaded gasoline and diesel fuel.

Example 3

A small assembler company provides wiring harness assemblies for an automotive electronic controller. There are several part numbers, and many of the parts for each part

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number look very much alike. The company has received complaints from the automotive assembly plants that some harnesses have incorrect components (which must be changed out on the assembly line causing delays). The solution is to color code the different part numbers (green for one part number and yellow for the other) and to make sure that only the containers with the appropriate part number make it to the work stations. The color coding is vintage poke-yoke and successfully prevented incorrect components from being assembled into the wiring harnesses. See the illustration below.

Example 4

The service world has recognized the value of poka-yoke during the last several years. One way of applying error-proofing (poka-yoke) in the service sector is to devise a “task” poka- yoke. A task poka-yoke concentrates on the tasks that a server must perform and devises methods to assure the task is completed correctly. A popular example of a task poka-yoke is the automatic change dispenser that you encounter in many stores. The cash register automatically dispenses the correct change once the purchased item and the payment have been entered. This prevents an error in the “task” of a person making change.

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Example 5

A CPA firm has experienced delays in preparing tax returns because the customer has not provided all the required information. The firm decides to use a “preparation” poka-yoke. A preparation poka-yoke is an intervention in the service encounter that attempts to properly prepare the customer for the service. The CPA firm mails out a check list to each of their customers that contains a list and a place to check it off for each item critical to the preparation of that customer’s tax return. See the example below.

Required Item Please Check

1. Previous year’s tax return

2. Organized receipts for tax deductions

3. All W-2s

4. Mortgage information

5. Healthcare expenses

Example 6

A small manufacturer of printed signs has received complaints from its customers regarding print imperfections. Until now, the firm has required inspectors to inspect every item of the printed sign (like color variation, printing streaks, etc.). After discussing the inspection protocol with the inspectors, the firm decided that it was asking too much of the inspectors by insisting that they inspect so many items. Together with the inspection personnel, and using the complaints received, they compiled a short list of the most important inspection items. To ensure the inspectors did not forget to inspect carefully these items, they created an inspection board that contained lights by each of the critical items. The inspector must press a button to turn the light off, thereby assuring the inspector has looked carefully at the critical item.

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Overview and History of 5S

Origin of 5S The 5S method has its roots in Japan. The development of 5S is attributed to Hiroyuki Hirano, author of 5 Pillars of the Visual Workplace: The Sourcebook for 5S Implementation. The architects of the Toyota Production System (TPS) adapted 5S into their approach to Just-in-Time (JIT) and improving the manufacturing operations. The focus of 5S was on both housekeeping and organization as Toyota was pursuing TPS and JIT practices. The key is that housekeeping (cleanliness) alone does not provide the value that both housekeeping and organization (a place for everything and everything in its place) provide.

Explanation of 5S The 5Ss have been translated from their original form in the Japanese language to the English version we use today. Regardless of which language is used, the meaning and approach remain the same. The 5Ss include:

• Sort • Straighten • Shine • Standardize • Sustain

A brief review of each S will provide more clarity around what it means and how to do it.

1. Sort The focus of sort is to get the “$#1&%#$” out of there! Seriously, you need to determine what really needs to be in the work area and what really is in the work area. You sort the things that are not needed and remove then. Keep the 8 wastes front and center as you perform the 5S work. Remember to be objective! A best practice is to set items you have sorted out of the workplace in a quarantine area so people have a chance to review. The quarantine area should be easily identifiable, near the 5S

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action, and easily accessible. A good example is to mark off an area across the aisle with red floor tape.

2. Straighten The focus of straighten is to get the area organized. Sometimes, this is referred to as “set in place.” Whether it is tools in the machining center, medical supplies in the patient room, or resource materials in the office cubicle, use logic in how you place items. Put items close if needed frequently; put further away if less frequently. Consider the idea of “prime real estate.” Think about the area in a rectangle around the neck, chest, and stomach, and with outstretched arms of the person doing the work. If possible, place the things the person needs in the prime real estate to eliminate motion muda and make the workplace visual.

3. Shine The focus of shine is to clean the area where 5S is being implemented. Sometimes, this is referred to as “scrub” – really, scrub! When you clean closely, you get to know the operation. Sometimes, it requires a squirt bottle and cloth, and, sometimes, a 55-gallon drum of scum- buster and brush! If the focus of your 5S effort is on the shared directories in your company’s information systems, scrubbing may mean sitting down and cleaning the file locations and structure. Do you remember the last time you went looking for that file that you knew was out there somewhere but could not find it!

4. Standardize The focus of standardize is to begin to set expectation for the ongoing upkeep of 5S. You should make it easy to practice 5S. Three ways to do this are:

• Schedule the time and allow the time • Provide the tools; store tools in a standard place • Make sure people are trained; as people come and go, provide adequate training

5. Sustain

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Finally, the focus of sustain is to make 5S so ingrained into the work processes that people do 5S even when you are not looking, and without prompting. You should strive to make 5S a part of the organization’s culture. The signals (either intended or unintended) leadership sends about 5S have a massive impact on how seriously the organization will take 5S. Leaders should “walk the walk” by being visible, asking questions, and taking active roles (What is the leader’s office condition? Is he/she practicing 5S?). In short, there is a role for everyone to play. An important part of sustaining is to measure, report, and hold accountable for results. The 5S audit is an effective way to make the 5S process measurable and provide a mechanism for feedback.

Caution Here is a word of caution. The first three Ss are easy and provide instant gratification. The last two Ss are difficult but essential. Think about cleaning your garage (or attic or closet) on Saturday morning. You can get fired up with the sorting, straightening. and shining. It is good physical labor. You can see the results quickly. You pat yourself on the back and feel good about the morning! But what happens if you did not pay attention to the standardize and sustain steps? Predictably, things you sorted out will show back up. The corner will become a place for stuff to pile up. The floor will get gritty again. In short, it will be back to business as usual. The same happens when you implement 5S in the workplace. Without standardize and sustain, you are guaranteed to backslide!

6th S – Safety Some organizations focus on safety as the sixth S. Others stick with the original 5S model. Either way is okay as long as safety is recognized as fundamental to an effective operation – regardless of industry.

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Whether it is formally called out as the sixth S or not, SAFETY should underpin everything we do with Lean Six Sigma. Safety should be measured, and accountability should be part of the Lean process.

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Making 5S Happen

Rollout Alternatives In a previous lecture, you were exposed to a definition of 5S and began to see how to execute 5S. Even with that newfound knowledge, there remains the question, “Now what?” In other words, how do you get started? If you are just starting to consider 5S, you are probably very early in your Lean journey. 5S tends to be a part of the Lean body of knowledge that is a good launching point for the lean journey. You recognize that 5S is a foundation for other Lean efforts. To illustrate the wide spectrum of ways to get started with 5S, let’s look at four distinct ways. Please note that this is not an exhaustive list. Rather, it is a broad list that is intended to show respective strengths and weakness of different approaches. The following are the four alternatives we will explore:

• Pilot project • Part of formal Kaizen event • Informal rollout • Wall-to-wall blitz

1. Pilot Project The 5S pilot project is an initiative that is narrowly focused on implementation of 5S. For some organizations, this is an effective and safe way to start that has a high probability of success. If needing an early win in your Lean effort is important, then this might be a strong candidate. The pilot project should have a reasonable scope – not too broad and not too narrow. If it is too broad, you run the risk of diluting your scarce resources. If it is too narrow, you run the risk of too limited a result. Examples of a reasonable scope might include a work cell, a particular section of a department, or a room in service delivery area. Whatever the scope alternative, consider making the area a “model area” so that others can learn about the potential from an effective 5S implementation.

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2. Part of Formal Kaizen Event Remember our discussion abut Lean as a system? One example described having a formal Kaizen event focused on setup reduction. As we discussed other Lean methods, tools, and techniques that could complement the specific set-up reduction method, we saw that 5S could play a significant role in the Kaizen event. In many formal Kaizen events, 5S will be an enabler for everything else you want to accomplish. 5S shows demonstrable impact and is a great catalyst to attack rest of the Kaizen event objectives. Because of the speed and tactile nature of 5S, you can turn the naysayer who says, “We can’t do that” into an advocate that is more likely to say, “Yes we can!”

3. Informal Rollout The informal rollout is an approach that has limited structure and direction. You could argue that this is more bottom-up instead of top-down. 5S will find where energy and acceptance are and then focus there. But there are some risks to the informal rollout. You may find there is variation in the way it is implemented in one area versus another area. This is a problem if you want to end up with a standardized overall approach. Since people/departments/areas of the business can choose to do 5S or not, there will be challenges to achieving organization-wide 5S and lean traction. It is harder to sell an organization’s commitment, but the “spot” commitments might still work to lay the groundwork for further Lean activities.

4. Wall-to-Wall Blitz The wall-to-wall blitz is the riskiest and most disruptive of the four approaches described here. You simply stop the business and everybody does 5S. There is a big blitz and big splash – lots of hoopla! The major risk to the wall-to-wall blitz approach is that you may spread your resources too thin. Furthermore, it is likely you will not develop the “roots” to sustain the 5S and the broader Lean effort.

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Potential Pitfalls The key potential pitfalls that you, the Lean practitioner, should pay attention to include the following:

• Start too big and spread too thin • Do not provide the time to follow through • Do not measure, chart results, and provide feedback • Accept mediocrity

Keeping Traction Once you start your 5S implementation (by whichever approach), you should be thinking ahead to how to grow momentum and keep traction. Several ideas to help keep traction are:

• Make sure that everyone clearly understands, and that you are effectively communicating, the reasons for and objectives of 5S

• Make sure learning is effective. Remember repetition is a good thing, so train and retrain

• Measure, share, and publicize 5S results. Give the people who are working on 5S plenty of feedback. Make the feedback constructive rather than punitive

• Build a pull for 5S. Once people begin to see that they can work in a safe and clean workplace, they begin to want more. This is pull. Pull is good. Reinforce the good results and respond to people’s pull signals

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5S Audit In previous lectures, you were exposed to definitions of 5S, learned about how to execute 5S, and saw four alternatives for starting and rolling out. You learned that the fourth and fifth S’s are the most difficult but are the backstop to prevent backsliding. One of the items in the Sustain step is the 5S audit. Let’s take a look at the following aspects of the 5S audit:

• Understand how the 5S audit works • Identify how audit motivates and reinforces behavior • See how to link the audit performance to metrics

Why Do the 5S Audit? Wise people have told us that you get what you measure. You are investing time, financial resources, and people’s talent in the 5S implementation. A fair question is, “How do we measure 5S?” One way to measure the efforts is by performing the 5S audit. The audit helps to demonstrate seriousness and commitment or supervisors, managers, and leaders of an organization. Additionally, it provides tangible feedback to people doing the 5S work. The feedback can propel continuous improvement. Finally, the 5S audit feeds into metrics that are focused on cleanliness. In some industries, cleanliness is required by regulation. In others, it is left to the imagination of the leadership. At either ends of this spectrum, the 5S audit can provide relevant and useful measurement information.

What is the 5S Audit and Who Does It? In simplest terms, the 5S audit is a one-page assessment of a few targeted items. Once the assessment of the individual items is done, then an aggregate score for the audit is calculated. Finally, the information is then posted and the feedback is shared. There, you have the 5S audit process.

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Descriptors of the 5S audit worksheet include (See the manufacturing example at end of the 5S Audit section.) the following:

• 10 (give or take) specific items to be reviewed • Items are relevant to the process (Manufacturing, hospital, and office/admin have

different focus and terminology.) • Scoring scale (0 to 5, for example) • Overall average score for the items results in audit score

Different organizations have different people performing the 5S audits, so there is no one right answer to who does the audit. Whoever it is must take the job seriously and have ability to be objective. Some examples of auditors include

• Person working in the area • Supervisor of area • Peer from another area • Lean resource person • Other, or combination of above

Beware of Calibration Issues We audit the same area; I see a 2.5, and you see a 4.5. This indicates that we have a calibration problem (opportunity). Your auditors need to know what the criteria are for the 0 to 5 scores for each of the individual items on the worksheet. Herein lies a linkage to standardized work (another “Lean as a system” moment). The actions to take to overcome calibration differences are to develop a standard for what different scores look like and train the auditors so you can reduce calibration variation.

How Does the 5S Audit Motivate and Reinforce? The 5S audit creates an expectation for organization and cleanliness. It enables accountability because it measures the 5S outcome in the targeted areas. For those who are competitive (and aren’t we all?), the 5S audit creates competition. Your job as the Lean practitioner is to keep the competition positive, productive, and fun.

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A general process to convert the individual 5S scores into a more formal measurement system that can go from the individual work area to the topmost corporate metric includes the following steps:

• Put the individual 5S scores into a central data location • Graph the results to enable trending for individual “cell/work area” • From the central data location, roll up the 5S scores for area responsibilities:

o Supervisor o Business unit manager/plant manager o Company

Talk about making the connection between the front-line and the C-suite! The audit provides feedback that drives behavior and enables accountability. It is best used as a tool for development rather than tool to find who messed up. So, where can you get value from 5S and the 5S audit? The following list just scratches the surface of possibilities:

• Fabrication shop • Patient room at skilled nursing facility • CEO’s office • Any place we have shared directories as well as our own laptops • Plus, almost any other industry where work occurs

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Weekly 5S Audit Worksheet for Work Cells

Scoring Legend:

Score each item from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest)

0 = rea l ly bad or non-existent

1 = some evidence, but very spotty

2 = evidence is growing, but still not systemic

3 = evidence is spreading; s tarting to see systemic application

4 = looking OK; don’t have to nag

5 = rea l ly s trong evidence; can see systemic application

Area Audited: ____________________

Audit Team: ________________________________


Date: ___________________________

Category Description Score Improvement Opportunity

1. Equipment

Equipment is wiped down. Dust, chips, and oil not visible on equipment and shelves.

2. Floors

Floors clean from dust and debris. Chips, drips, slag and waste from process is minimized.

3. Tools

Only tools that are required are in the area. Tools are organized and labeled.

4. Materials

Only materials that are required are in the area and in assigned locations.

5. Cords and Hoses

Hoses and cords are organized and clean. Workplace trip hazards are minimized.

6. Work instructions

Work instructions are clearly presented. Visual techniques create process clarity.

7. Access/Egress

Easy access into and out of work area. Stop buttons easily accessible.

8. Floor marking

Floor and workspace clearly marked. Location of standard items is clear.

9. Labeling

Items in area are clearly marked/labeled. Information is up-to-date and clear.

10. Sustain process

Process is in place to sustain 5S. Regular audits are conducted and results posted.

5S Average Score

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Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)


Total productive maintenance, or TPM, is an innovative approach to equipment maintenance involving maintenance personnel and operators working in teams, focusing on eliminating equipment breakdowns and equipment related defects.

TPM is a systematic approach to improving production and quality systems by including all employees through moderate investment in maintenance.

Total productive maintenance began in the manufacturing industry and relies on the full support of all employees and top management for TPM to be successful.

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

OEE, or Overall Equipment Effectiveness, should be measured. The calculation for OEE is Availability × Performance × Quality (Some use the acronym PAY).

Performance × Availability × Yield (yield being a substitute word for quality) Availability = Operating time ÷ Planned production time

The performance is the ideal cycle time/operating time/by the total pieces. And the quality is the good pieces/by the total number of pieces.

Preventable Losses

The next topic to address is major losses. There are six preventable losses that include:

• Breakdowns • Set up and adjustments • Idling • Minor stoppages • Quality • Rework losses

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Proactive Maintenance Techniques Proactive maintenance focuses on avoiding repairs and equipment failure. We will identify all components that are candidates for proactive maintenance:

1. Establish initial proactive maintenance program 2. Create a feedback system for optimizing the maintenance intervals 3. Establish an autonomous maintenance program • Autonomous maintenance places responsibility for routine maintenance

such as cleaning, lubricating, and inspection in the hands of operators • Empowering and developing operators to be able to take care of small

maintenance tasks is what autonomous maintenance consists of

By empowering the worker, this frees up skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value-added activity and technical repairs. The operator takes responsibility for upkeep of their equipment and to prevent it from deteriorating.

Planned Maintenance

Preventive maintenance is scheduled based on maintenance tasks for predicted and/or measured failure rates.

Planned maintenance has three main steps:

1. Time-based maintenance: Timing parameters are set according to the known rates of deterioration. The parts replacement and repairs are performed at a set time, regardless of the actual conditions

2. Condition-based or predictive maintenance: The deterioration is measured

periodically and then analyzed. The parts replacement and repairs are performed when measured deterioration is at a set value

3. Inspection and repair, which is an overhaul: The equipment is periodically disassembled and inspected. The parts replacement and repairs are performed when the need is discovered during the overhaul

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Total Productive Maintenance

TPM is a critical adjunct to Lean manufacturing if machine reliability or uptime of the machine is not predictable and not able to be sustained.

• The process must keep extra stocks to buffer against this uncertainty and to avoid interruption

o Unreliable uptime is caused by breakdowns or badly performed maintenance

o Correcting maintenance will allow uptime to improve and speed production through a given area, allowing a machine to run at its designed capacity of production

TPM in Industries other than Manufacturing

The focus of TPM for equipment in service and IT industries has largely been unused in maintenance programs.

In the service industry, the measure of efficiency is typically overall performance efficiency or OPE rather than overall equipment efficiency.

OPE is a measure of the effectiveness of people and processes that is used to target value and non-value add factors. OPE covers waiting, waste, delivering waste, rework waste, changeover waste, motion waste, and many other forms of waste. There are three contributing factors:

1. Scheduling 2. Operator performance 3. Process performance

Finally, there are eight main types of waste defined in TPM. The acronym for the wastes is DOWNTIME: defects, overproduction, waiting, non-utilized talent, transportation, inventory, motion, and excess processing.

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Standard Work

Introduction Standard work is one of the fundamental concepts in Lean—without standard work, any gains will be short-lived. Taiichi Ohno said, “Where there is no standard, there can be no Kaizen.” Standard work and Kaizen work hand-in-hand to continuously and iteratively drive improvement, but we will look more into that in a minute. Imagine that you and your team are trying to push a very large and very heavy ball up a hill. It requires a concerted effort to push, followed by a pause while you all catch your breath. While you take a break, you might put a block or chock under the ball to keep it from rolling backward. Then you push again, set the chock, take a breath, and push again. Eventually, you reach your goal. When your team is engaged in continuous improvement (Kaizen), standard work is the block you put in place to keep workers from returning to the way work was done before. The work is done according to the new standard until the work team finds a better way to do the task, then the work standard is redefined. This brings us back to the relationship between Kaizen and standard work. Kaizen without standard work is chaotic—one step forward and two steps back. In the chaos, root causes may never be explored, discovered, and removed. Most importantly, without the baseline that standard work provides, there is no data for determining if the change resulted in an improved state.

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On the other side of the coin, standard work without a continuous improvement mindset kills motivation and wastes creativity—nothing changes for the better. Repeat problems remain because there is no reason to identify and analyze them, and the workplace moves toward entropy and stagnation.


• Standard work: the safest, fastest, easiest, and best way to do the job

• Standard work, standardized work, and standardization all refer to an agreed-upon, specific way of completing a task

• Work standards, on the other hand, are work instructions, often called standard operating procedures or procedure manuals

• Standards, another similar term, refers to specific requirements defined by law, or by regulators, or by contract. Standards may also be called specifications, technical requirements, or criteria

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• They differ from standard work in one critical aspect—standard work is a set of defined steps for carrying out work that remains in place only until a better way is found

• Standard work is not intended to be written in stone. Work standards and regulatory standards are relatively permanent

Developing Standard Work

• Use a cross-functional team created from both inside and outside the area and from a supplying step and a customer step

• Employees will own the development of a process and can train to do it

Benefits of Standard Work There are many advantages to standardizing work processes.

• Training is simplified • Variation is reduced due to work being done the same way every

time • Scrap is reduced because defects do not need to be planned for • There are faster and more predictable lead times • Safety is increased, and injuries are reduced • Employee involvement and buy-in increases

All benefits lead to an enhanced employee and customer satisfaction.

Lean Six Sigma

A Standard Workbench • All workstations look the same • Tools in a standard area with detailing • Have some type of a visual workplace or a 5S program audit to

ensure things remain where they belong

An Escalation Process • Values the collective organizational ability to get issues solved and

back on track to avoid downtime – it is not an individual’s responsibility to solve every problem

• Has a standard for when to trigger an escalation process and has a standard for the escalation process itself

Work Instructions • Simple • Visual • Pictorial

Implementing Lean Standardization The following are the four steps to implementing Lean standardization:

1. Establish and agree upon how a task will be done step by step 2. Do the work according to the work standard for a specified period

of time; measure process performance to establish baseline data

Lean Six Sigma

3. Form a team to analyze process performance using the plan, do, check, act method

4. Agree upon a new standard and document it. Repeat from Step 2, measuring process performance with each change

Conclusion In conclusion, Lean tools can help you establish, analyze, and improve process performance, including standard work charts, production capacity charts, and standardized work combination tables. Keep in mind that making the work standard and easy to follow is important; consider using visual cues, immediate feedback systems, and Lean management boards. But remember that the focus of standardization is not tools and methods but continuous and sustainable improvement.

Lean Six Sigma

Lean Six Sigma


  • Module 6 Topic 1 RD SSG110_Supplemental Module 6.1 Introduction to Perfection
  • Module 6 Topic 2 FMEA
    • Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
      • Introduction
      • FMEA Sequence of Steps
      • Risk Priority Number (RPN)
      • FMEA Priorities
      • FMEA Issue Criteria
      • FMEA Examples
      • FMEA Layout
      • Conclusion
  • Module 6 Topic 3 Poka-Yoke
    • Poka-Yoke
      • Introduction
      • History of Poka-Yoke
      • Poka-Yoke Approaches and Methods
      • Poke-yoke Examples
        • Example 1
        • Example 2
        • Example 3
        • Example 4
        • Example 5
        • Example 6
  • Module 6 Topic 4- Overview and History of 5S
    • Overview and History of 5S
      • Origin of 5S
      • Explanation of 5S
        • 1. Sort
        • 2. Straighten
        • 3. Shine
        • 4. Standardize
        • 5. Sustain
      • Caution
      • 6th S – Safety
  • Module 6 Topic 5- Making 5S Happen
    • Making 5S Happen
      • Rollout Alternatives
        • 1. Pilot Project
        • 2. Part of Formal Kaizen Event
        • 3. Informal Rollout
        • 4. Wall-to-Wall Blitz
      • Potential Pitfalls
      • Keeping Traction
  • Module 6 Topic 6- 5S Audit
    • 5S Audit
      • Why Do the 5S Audit?
      • What is the 5S Audit and Who Does It?
      • Beware of Calibration Issues
      • How Does the 5S Audit Motivate and Reinforce?
  • Module 6 Topic 7 RD SSG110_Supplemental Module Topic 7 Total Productive Maintenance TPM
    • Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
      • Introduction
      • Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)
      • Preventable Losses
      • Proactive Maintenance Techniques
      • Planned Maintenance
      • Total Productive Maintenance
      • TPM in Industries other than Manufacturing
    • Standard Work
      • Introduction
      • Definition
      • Developing Standard Work
      • Benefits of Standard Work
      • A Standard Workbench
      • An Escalation Process
      • Work Instructions
      • Implementing Lean Standardization
      • Conclusion