Main Factors Affecting The Effect Of Celebrities’ Sponsored Posts From The Consumers’ Perspective.
1.2 Research Question
Running head: FACTORS AFFECTING EFFECTS OF CELEBRITIES’ SPONSORED POSTS 1
FACTORS AFFECTING EFFECTS OF CELEBRITIES’ SPONSORED POSTS 2
Main Factors Affecting the Effects of Celebrities’ Sponsored Posts from the Consumer Perspective
1.2 Research Question
The theoretical framework of this research details the overall study topic, as it showcases that there remains a range of celebrity attributes. The discussion here revolves around the major three attributes including attractiveness, credibility, and meaning transfer. The attractiveness includes looks, charm, beauty, magnetism, and pleasant appearance, etc.). Credibility encompasses trustworthiness, authority, reliability, sincerity, and standing of the celeb. The meaning transfer entails how a celeb changes the meaning of the product or brand in the eye of the consumer.
Accordingly, whenever the product image gets improved in the mind of the consumer, he or she wishes to buy that service or product that suggests there remains a relationship amongst these three celeb attributes, and they have a direct association and impact on the general purchasing behaviour.
The authors have modeled the theoretical framework and presented it in the figure beneath. This figure denotes the framework which helps understand the impacts of celeb sponsored posts on consumer buying behaviour. The below theoretical model has been drawn from the integrated model for comprehending celeb endorsement as well as the perception of the consumer study cross-cultural consumer behaviour. The model of study is as presented in figure 1 below:
The model is further explained in figure 2 below:
|Models explicating celeb sponsored posts||Fundamental theory||Influence Source on consumers||Perception/BuyingBehaviour of Consumer|
|Source attractiveness Model||Celebrity’s expertise and trustworthiness||Identification process||Positive ad insight, celeb, and brand whenever knowledge & dependability high|
|Source Credibility Model||Celebrity’s likeability, familiarity & similarity of||Internalization process(Kelman) Balance theory(||Optimistic ad discernment, celeb & brand whenever personality is likable and popular|
|Meaning TransferModel||Transfer process of meaning from celeb to brand & to the consumer.||Process of transfer of meaning to brand from celebrity through consumer||The just correct match between the brand’s properties and celeb meaning haggard from her/his take for the granted role the higher the probability of consumers’ observation alongside fraud of item meaning|
3.1 Research Design
The research design for this current study remains deductive since the major purpose of this research is testing the hypothesis that stood developed as well as to obtain a conclusion. Furthermore, the deductive approach application shall help comprehend and explain the relationship between celeb sponsored posts or celeb endorsement and consumer buying behaviour. Accordingly, the quantitative approach remains being employed in this study since it shall assist in the collection of a huge amount of data thereby answering the study questions. The utilization of the quantitative method remains further justified in this research study since when the research topic area remains regarded as being enormous, and there emerges a need for deducing causal relations between variables, the best method to be employed remains quantitative.
The research approach follows the hypothesis design. In this current study, to acquire the basic comprehension, literature, as well as past research, offer ideas and insights regarding the questionnaire construction. Specifically, questions linked to celeb endorsement besides source credibility might be designed premised on the conceptual and theoretical framework.
The structure of the research covers problem statement, research objective, conceptual framework, hypothesis, research tools & technique, and instrument selection.
In terms of problem statement; this study looks at the following problem. It examines how the consumers are responding to those services and products that are backed or sponsored or endorsed by celebs. It also looks at how a celebrity’s endorsement motivate and encourage consumers to execute certain kind of actions. Lastly, the study examines whether or not celebrity-endorsed services and products get increasingly sold than those items which are never celeb-sponsored.
In terms of the research objectives, the following study objectives are examined to help obtain info regarding the following. 1. The impact of celebrity has on the buying intention of the consumers concerning credibility. 2. The impact of celebrity endorsement on the consumers concerning service or product fit-match between the celeb and the product. 3. How much consumers remain persuaded in regards to the celebrity’s attractiveness. 4. To establish how celebrities are transferring meaning to the service or brand endorsed by them and to what degree does that shapes their intention to buy. 5. To discern the effectiveness of celeb endorsement.
Conceptual Framework: The following conceptual framework is utilized in this study:
H0: No celebrity endorsement impact on consumer purchasing behaviour
H1: There remains a celebrity endorsement on purchasing behaviour
H2: No any relationship between celebrities sponsored posts and consumer buying behaviour
H2a: There remains a relationship between celeb sponsored posts and buying behaviour
H3a: There remains a relationship amongst the celeb attributes
H3b: No any relationship amongst attributes of celebrity
In terms of research tools and techniques; the population and target population refers to students drawn from three different universities including CAMS, IQRA, and SZABIST universities. Of the three Universities a total of 200 students, both male and female students, made up the sample size from diverse social class status; middle class, upper-middle-class, and upper class.
In terms of instrument selection; both primary and secondary data were gathered. The primary data was collected via the questionnaire distribution in a group interview format to the respondents and their respective responses recorded, which made up the primary data. The secondary data was gathered via the info provided in newspapers, textbooks, articles, reports, and magazines. The software utilized included SPSS; Excel alongside spreadsheets.
3.1.1 Group Interview
The Group Interview was executed using the questionnaire with questions already printed.
3.1.2 Quantitative Research
The research remains quantitative and descriptive whereby the researchers collected both secondary and primary data sources. The sample size used was two hundred. The 200 sample size for this particular research was utilized to examine the main factors affecting the impacts of the celebrity posts and endorsement on consumer buying behaviour from the perspectives of the consumers. Random sampling technique stood employed, one-hundred students remain drawn from the SZABIST, fifty students from the IQRA, and the remaining fifty students drawn from the CAMS Universities.
In terms of the instrument selection, the researchers borrowed the questionnaire from the previous study conducted by Kumar (2010) on the topic of the impact of celebs endorsement on buying behaviour. The variables of the study included the dependent variable being the buying behaviour while the independent study variable remained the celebrity posts or endorsement. The researchers operationalized the celebrity in its trio major attributes which included the meaning transfer, attractiveness, and credibility. Moreover, the research subsequently saw the impacts of such three factors on consumers buying behaviours from the consumer perspective. In respect to the plan of analysis, the study results stood analyzed via quantitative, regression, frequency, and correlation analysis. The data remained processed via SPSS to obtain the findings.
3.1.3 Qualitative Research
The qualitative research was carried out using the systematic review of literature already published on the topic. In terms of celebrity, it was discovered that, in the contemporary marketing environment, advertisers hold that the presence of celebrities in their ads is playing a critical role in convincing the target audience. Popular ones are those who got the acknowledgment from the general public as well as own certain distinguished as well as attractive attributes including attractiveness or credibility.
In terms of celebrity endorsement, it is noted that celebrity endorsement has turned out to be the winning formula for businesses to enhance the image and subsequent sales of their respective brands, services, or products. In creating a substantial impact on their target markets, businesses are currently utilizing celebrities to make corresponding brands protuberant, acknowledgeable as well as remember viewers since people are increasingly attracted to celebrities and can effortlessly retain their corresponding messages.
It is further noted that celebrity endorsement remains a publication tool which utilizes famous personalities to associate their respective public image with their products or brands to assist in the creation of or development of the image of the brands. It has since been increasingly a profitable tool for companies creating a substantial brand image in the consumers’ minds over competitive products and brands existing in the marketplace. Celebrity has sparks that immediately grab the viewers’ attention, fascinating them as well as producing desired positive actions from the public towards the product (Nasir et al., 2016).
Accordingly, the advocacy of the celebrity implies a marketing strategy of utilizing popular individuals to advocate brands. The studies have shown that celebrity is a proven helpful tool in the promotion of the ideals associated with the brand, in bringing anticipated sentiments towards brands as well as creating the acknowledgment of the name of proprietary. Well acknowledged persons speaking regarding any brand creates a significant extent of appeal, as well as a public trust in such speech, would become increasingly higher than on such speeches made by any unknown models. Celebrity supports have been used as a basis of showcasing techniques for marketed items’ advancements and remain an inclusive constituent embraced by the general proprietary names.
For the achievement of engaging the effect, a fitting relationship between big games and, either the products supported or the celebrity’s identities in respect to a few parts of the product remains imperative. Celebrity endorsers have a significant impact on brands which has a significant impact on the mind of the consumers. For instance, form apparel as well as gems retailers whenever they adopt big names rep, it can create an increasingly remarkable unwavering quality and a further reassuring brand appraisal from buyers.
In terms of celebrity underwriting, the contemporary celeb endorsement remains being practicing in diverse forms including print ads in newspapers or magazines, celebrity appearance in TVCs, celeb promoting brands in certain programs, via music, via mobile vans, such celebrity might be established ones or novel ones. Companies need to select those well-known celebrities by taking into consideration the message they wish to convey to their audience, brand personalities, as well as organizations’ marketing budget solely the, can it be said to be a winning tool for any product or brand concerning accomplishing a positive objective by an endorsement by celebrity.
Various advantages of celebrity endorsement have been identified. Despite being an expensive technique marketing, celebrity endorsement has several pros. By using the popular individuals “open recognition, the company might surge various benefits.” For example, consumers begin thinking in line that in case a reputed celebrity is using a brand, such a brand then has to be of a higher caliber. The other huge advantage is that viewers’ attention can effortlessly get grabbed for a product by popular individuals or celebs. Also, brands can effortlessly get free desirable exposure in public, television, magazines, newspapers, shows, and news among others whenever popular celebrities utilize or wear such a brand and go places. Moreover, brand endorsed by bigger names remains often expensive hence profitability and ROI would likely be greater in such a manner. Furthermore, this tool proves an efficacious one to assisting customers in acknowledging the brands, point of distinction with rival brands, and further in retention and recall of such brand names.
In terms of celebrity endorsement reference groups, it is discovered that social gatherings are having a substantial influence on the mind of the consumers on their respective lifestyles. Consumers attempt to be often looking like popular individuals. Celebrities remain such reference groups that remain never personally or almost known by the general public, yet individuals wish to imitate their preferred celebrities.
In terms of celebrities versus non-celebrities endorsement, previous studies have showcased that celebrities’ speeches preferring brands lead to more influential as well as productive influence as compared to such speeches undertake by non-celebrities. The eventual objective of taking celebrity support remains to build a positive brand image as well as the desired customer behaviour toward such a brand. Unlike this, celebrity endorsers have since built up an identity and character of themselves over the past. Before probe about the celebrity advocacy proves whenever compared to non-celebrity advocator, celebrity advocator has established significant certifiable practices to advertising as well as expanded the buying target.
In regards to single versus manifold celebrity endorsement and manifold celebrity endorsement, researchers have categorized big-name underwriting premised on a range of items adopted (single vs. multiple items) and the number of celebrities (single versus an array of names). Where a celebrity embraced only a single product or mark, it is then referred to as single-item support. It is never normal practice, along these lines, that big names embraced merely a single brand or product, normally they like themselves to underwrite beyond a single brand or item marred several celebrities underwriting as “the use of at minimum 2 big names in the promotion effort.” Diverse celebrity endorsement is classified based on how celebrities get displayed in the promotion; into 2 segments.
In the mainstream setup, for an item underwriting, at minimum 2 celebrities encompassed in a single ad. Whereas in the 2nd scenario, a similar item underwriting is executed via the inclusion of different popular individuals in advertisement progression. In commercial and marketing business, supporting diverse celebrities never trigger excitements amongst publicists. Several big brands utilize such a strategy across the globe. For example, Pepsi (a famous brand) has since been endorsed by a range of celebrities including Ayesha Omer, Fawad Khan, ShahidAfridi, Reema Khan, and Atif Aslam among others in Pakistan.
In regards to factors affecting the celebrity sponsored posts impacts and relevant models, past research has shown that there remain diverse variables affecting the impact of celebrities sponsored posts or celebrity endorsements concerning consumer purchasing behaviour whenever such celebrities have endorsed a brand. Marketers must take into consideration certain factors when selecting celebrities to endorse their respective brands and products to achieve desired outcomes to utilize this technique of celebrity endorsement with respect to the image of the brand, consumer purchasing behaviour alongside desired market share attainment. The previous studies have emphasized on a diverse mix of factors associated with celebrity endorsement influence on consumer purchasing behaviour, this current study remains centered on a comparatively divergent and utmost suitable mix of variables which a marketer needs to take into consideration when choosing celebrities to subsequently endorse their brands to accomplish a desirable effect on the consumer purchasing conduct (Khalid& Siddiqui, 2019).
3.2 Data Collection
The data collection method was different for both qualitative and quantitative data. Both systematic reviews of past published research articles on the topic and group interviews have been utilized to collect data. Some of the qualitative data collected were in relation to the factors that affect the impact of celebrity sponsored posts on consumer buying behaviour from the perspective of the consumers. From the data, consumers have indicated that credibility, meaning transfer, emotional involvement are the main factors that affect the impact of celebrity endorsements’ on consumer buying behaviour.
In terms of credibility, it is defined as the believability level a beneficiary is having towards a specific message provided by the source as well as the expertise of such a source or even delivery of the message. Previously, source credibility stood merely regarded as being endorser credibility within a commercial. It has since proved a significant foundation impacting the buying behaviour of consumers and their corresponding attitudes towards communications of marketing. Previous literature described three facets of credibility including expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. In respect to the source credibility model, the integrity of a celebrity depends on his physical attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness which is the reason researchers wishing to study the celebrity endorsement effectiveness must take into account this model.
Physical attractiveness has the power which might effortlessly grab the consumers’ attention yet it never merely associate with the body, however, the whole physical traits come under the attractiveness measure that encompasses facial features, hair colour, weight, height, and complexion among others and usually, public figures must remain attractive to influence their viewers and audience. The source attractiveness model involves attractive celebrities remain increasingly usually utilized by companies for the promotion of their brands since the inauguration of this marketing strategy, once the consumer gets inspired with this attractive celebrity personality then they become more engaged in messages given by such celebrities and subsequently the opportunities for consumers’ conviction to the celebrities’ communication become increasingly effective, desired outcomes likelihood remains usually low with reduced attractive celebrities.
In terms of trustworthiness, it is the extent of believability or trust listeners are having for the communicator. In respect to celebrities, it implies the trust of the buyer on celebrities’ messages for the brand. For instance, in case customers are having a trust in celebrity getting endorsed then the messages of those celebrities shall be increasingly influential and shall assist significantly in altering the consumers’ minds towards the required actions what companies wish for the brand by consumers.
3.3 Data Analysis
The reliability statistics are shown in table 1 below:
|Cronbach’s Alpha||Number of Items|
Based on the standard rule dictating that the percentage of reliability has to be over 0.60 and therefore, the researchers got 0.9180, it is evident that this questioner remained reliable. Additionally, such reliability remains of nineteen items of the questioner, and every question remains including the questions of demographic.
In terms of demographic analysis, the following table 2 details the respondents’ demographic analysis:
|Frequency||%||Valid %||Cumulative %|
From the above table 2, it is evident that the total population remains 200 considered, whereby 116 students remained male respondents while 84 students remained female respondents. Looking around to the age variable, many of the respondents fell between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four; which included 121.0, 68.0 is in the age bracket of 25-30 whereas only eleven respondents stood above thirty years, since in this study, the researchers chiefly focused on the students. Table 3 below shows the Age analysis:
|Frequency||%||Valid %||Cumulative %|
|Valid||18 to 24||121.0||60.500||60.50||60.500|
|25 to 30||68.0||34.00||34.00||94.500|
The researchers drew 75 respondents from SZABIST, fifty-nine respondents from IQRA while sixty-six respondents were drawn from CAMS Universities to establish their perceptions regarding the celebrity sponsored post or endorsement and its subsequent impacts on their respective buying behaviour.
Table 4 below demonstrates the Universities Analysis
|Frequency||%||Valid %||Cumulative %|
The researchers additionally analyzed the social status and presented in table 5 below
|Frequency||%||Valid %||Cumulative %|
As seen from the above table of social status analysis, fifty-six respondents belonged to the middle class; forty-nine belonged to the upper-middle while 95 belonged to upper-class families. Accordingly, the researchers conducted a study from diverse students associated with divergent social classes within the campuses.
The researchers further analyzed the advertisement media and presented the results in table six below.
|Frequency||%||Valid %||Cumulative %|
From the above table six, the researchers asked the respondents the most important medium from which they watch the celebrity sponsored posts, many of the respondents, that is, 100 loved watching celeb sponsored posts on television adverts. Accordingly, we deducted that television remained the most effective medium to convey celebrity sponsored posts, followed by the internet with 48 respondents and then magazines coming a distant third with 45 respondents choosing to watch celeb advertisements in the magazine.
The researcher additionally analyzed celebrity against non-celebrity sponsored post and effects on buying behaviour. This was done by asking the respondents about which specific advertisements attracted them mostly between celebrity and non-celebrity sponsored posts. Accordingly, the researchers discovered that 162 respondents of the total 200 indicated that they were most attracted towards the celebrity sponsored posts, with only thirty-eight of the 200 respondents preferring non-celebrity endorsed advertisements in their perspectives.
|Celebrity versus non-celebrity sponsored posts analysis|
|Frequency||%||Valid %||Cumulative %|
The researchers also analyzed the frequencies of advertisements and celeb endorsements. This was done by asking the respondents about how frequently they were coming across advertising utilizing celebrity endorsement. Accordingly, many of the respondents indicated that they occasionally came across such endorsements and it usually showcases that celeb sponsored posts remained highly famous and extremely watched by the respondents.
|Frequencies of Advertisement and Celeb Endorsements|
|Frequency||%||Valid %||Cumulative %|
Correlation Analysis: The researchers then undertook the correlation analysis and presented the results in table nine below:
|Perception||Credibility||Attractiveness||Meaning transform||Buying behaviour|
|Meaning transform||Pearson Correlation||.691**||.634**||.549**||1||.751**|
|Buying behavior||Pearson Correlation||.920**||.733**||.507**||.751**||1|
|**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).|
From the above table of correlation analysis, it can be clearly seen that the highest relationship remains among consumer perception and the buying behaviour that stood at 0.92. This figure indicates that there remained a significant association between consumer perception and purchasing behaviour. The 2nd highest relationship of perception remains with the credibility which stands at 0.691 and is subsequently followed by credibility and then attractiveness. Secondly, credibility is having the highest relationship with purchasing behaviour that is 0.733, and subsequently with credibility and attractiveness and subsequently followed by meaning transfer. Thirdly, attractiveness remains the highest relationship with credibility at 0.565 which is then followed by meaning transfer and subsequently purchasing behaviour. Fourthly, meaning transfer is having the highest relationship with buying behaviour at 0.751 and then followed with credibility at 0.634. Accordingly, every sub-variable has a significant relationship on purchasing behaviour, whereby perception, which triggers “variable,” is having the highest impact with a value of 0.92; whereas with low relationship remains attractiveness at 0.469. Thus, the researchers concluded that every variable has a significant relationship with one another and they further have a high relationship with purchasing behaviour (Khalid, Siddiqui & Ahmed, 2018).
Regression Model: The researchers started by presenting a summary of the model in terms of the model summary of, the impact of celeb sponsored posts on buying behaviour, according to the standard ratio “adjusted R square” which had to be more/equal to 0.60; and, therefore, there remains 0.883 which suggests that the regression model is fitted and needs to be utilized in future studies for measuring the celeb sponsored posts’ impact on buying behaviour. Table 10 below shows the model summary:
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. The error of the Estimate|
a. Predictors: (constant), meaning transfer, attractiveness, perception, credibility
Coefficient Analysis: The authors further analyzed the coefficients. The findings of the coefficient in the above regression model, whereby Beta remains 0.694 of perception while the t-value remains 18.7810 with p-value being p<0.050-proposing that the perception is having a significant impact on purchasing behaviour. Credibility is having a t=4.6380 and p<0.050, whereas meaning transfer has t=4.750 and p<0.05. Accordingly, it is additionally deducted that both meaning transfer and credibility have a significant impact on purchasing behaviour. Because the attractiveness is having a negative outcome (B); it showcases that the surge in attractiveness plunges the impact on purchasing behaviour. Consequently, it is concluded that celeb sponsored posts have an impact and even an enormous impact on purchasing behaviour. Table 11 below illustrates coefficient analysis:
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients||T||Sig.|
|a. Dependent Variable: buying behaviour|
Accordingly, the researchers accepted the hypothesis that there remains an impact of celeb sponsored posts on buying behaviour thereby proving that there stays a remarkable and worthwhile impact of celeb sponsored posts over the purchasing behaviour and the researchers has rejected the hypothesis that there is no impact of celeb sponsored posts on buying behaviour.
Furthermore, the researchers accepted hypothesis that there remains a relationship between celeb sponsored posts and buying behaviour and rejected the hypothesis that no relationship between celeb sponsored posts and buying behaviour. This study further suggested that the hypothesis that there remains a relationship among the attributes of the celebrity sponsored post is accepted and rejects the hypothesis that no relationship among the celeb sponsored posts attributes. This implies that there remains a relationship between all the celebrities’ attributes (Malik & Qureshi, 2016).
3.4 Conclusion of Methodology
The methodology given above is effective and will help answer the research questions and hypotheses and hence solve the problem stated in this study. It is expected that the main factors affecting the impacts of celebrity sponsored posts on consumer buying behavior will be determined through this methodology.
Regularly, advertisers are practicing strategies aimed at attracting the interest of consumers to their respective messages as well as to distinguish their corresponding service and product offerings from their competitors’ offerings with the expectations to influence the purchasing behaviour of consumers. In a contemporary competitive environment, a quality remains positioned on the approach that is able to achieve such objectives. A major hurdle at such an initiative encompasses the utilization of a celeb rep. There remains a range of factors or bases as to the rationale a popular endorser might become dominant. Firstly, such a rep is attracting consideration towards the underlying commercials into the messy communication flow. Moreover, celebrities remain observed conventionally as being significantly active persons with an eye-catching as well as likable traits (Rangkaputi, 2017).
The use of celebrities in promotions dates back into the 19th century and such general promotional initiatives and practices have unearthed a huge quantity of intellectual and realistic considerations. Chiefly academic examination of celebrity support includes the sphere of the spokesperson’s credibility besides charismatic reps and suggests that celebs exercise their corresponding impact on consumers via seeming traits.
Several studies show that the utilization of eye-catching celebs acts as a basis for enhancing the feeling of potential consumers towards the ads. Such a mind-set to the commercials remains identified as the psychological scenarios that get exercised by individuals thereby systematizing the manner, how to acknowledge the environment and organize the way in which an individual responds towards it.
The contemporary mass media remain marred via descriptions of and info regarding superstars and as a consequence, celebs have higher reputations, unique traits, and captivating descriptions in accordance with the opinion of the community. Celebs often surface in promotions in relation to consumer services and goods. Through the skills to effectively pierce the frantic mess of publicity, depict consumers’ consideration, generate higher rates of memory, yield and distinguish descriptions of brands, they create income and trade, celeb endorsement has proved to be a useful approach. Undeniably, dealer expends enormous capital to use celebs to sponsor their respective brands (Avci&Yildiz, 2013).
Celebrity remains regarded as being a memorial, reps, and entertainer of business entity. The probe has determined that spokesperson endorsement significantly influences the mind-set of the consumers in a shared manner, and it might alter the customers’ feelings towards a given commercial alongside products. This might possibly have an impact on acquisition plan improvement and as a consequence, in boosting trade. Researchers have focused on extensive concentration towards the mindset of consumers to commercials as sentimental establishment besides intervening influence on attitudes of brand and intentions’ acquisitions.
The results of this study clearly demonstrate that celebrity endorsement remains effective and the relationship stays four between 2 elements of celeb endorsement with the purchase intention of consumers. The credibility remains the first attribute of celeb endorsement that entails two variables including trustworthiness and expertise. As the study suggests, consumers are framing their buying intentions in preference to such brands that remain endorsed by those celebrities with a certain expertise in a specific field of the brand and remain regarded as being trustworthy. Whenever such two conditions remain satisfied, a celebrity automatically becomes credible and desirably influences the buying intention of the consumers (Ahmed &Ashfaq, 2013).
The next attribute of celebrity endorsement remains “attractiveness” that is additionally subdivided into 2 variables including familiarity, similarity, as well as likeability. For example, in fragile domains like those cosmetics, celebrities’ attractiveness never plays an essential role since liking a celeb would never imply that a cosmetic shall really generate the intended positive outcome to the buyer or his or her skin as it did to the celeb endorsing it. Thus, as suggested by the study, the attractiveness of a celeb has no significant relationship with the intention to purchase (Malik &Guptha, 2014).
The third celebrity endorsement attribute is product celeb match-up which implies that a celeb endorsing a brand has an image which goes alongside the product being endorsed. It further has no relationship with the intention to purchase. The last attribute of celeb endorsement remains “meaning transfer” which is that meaning that a celeb is transferring to the product. This factor has a desirable positive relationship with intention to buy since usually consumers imagine that utilizing such a celeb endorsed brand shall make them subsequently look increasingly classy and glamorous in the case of cosmetics products. Accordingly, meaning transferred and credibility frame the buying intention positively as suggested by the study (Ahmed et al., 2015).
The current study comprises the findings of the elaborate research supporting the impacts of celebrity advocacy on acquiring consumers’ performance. The study emphasized on three key variables of celebrities backing with thus specific practice supporting the acquisition of patterns of consumers. These factors included celebrity being endorsed credibility covering physical attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness of the celebrity (Muthukumar&Jeyakumaran, 2013). Another factor is emotional involvement covering the dedication and passion of the celebrity which reflects via the commercials.
The third factor is meaning transfer covering the effective communication by celeb and the field endorsed by the celebrity that effectively matches the attributes of the product. For this present study, the responses were taken by 200 respondents from three campuses. Every respondent stood educated as well as belonged to diverse social classes (middle, middle-upper, and upper classes) families. The respondents were all nearly on the same page.
Via this current study, the researchers deducted that credibility alongside emotional involvement distinctly remain less winning variables for favouring customers purchasing behaviour than when such factors are blended with the factor called meaning transfer by a celebrity since the latter factor has a prominent influence towards consumers buying behaviour based on the analysis of the study results. However, specifically for beauty soaps, celebrity endorsement remains increasingly appealing, attractive besides winning strategy form the respondents whereby fashion, glamour, styles besides celebrities have an elaborate engagement in the lifestyle of the respondents.
Marketers are utilizing celebrities to effectively personify as well as associate such celebs image with their products and brands thereby making fans following those celebs likely to become the users and eventually, the products or brand’s consumers. Via questionnaires and verbal group interviews with the study respondents, it is discovered that there remain three major reasons behind people preferring LUX than Dove.
One of the reasons is that celeb endorsement as LUX remains to be a beautiful user of such a strategy since it was incepted while Dove doesn’t. The second reason is that the climatic condition of the three campuses is never favourable for the usage of Dove. The third reason remains the price difference, for everyday consumption, consumers are unable to afford Dove since the respondents are in middle and upper-middle-class families as compared to those belonging to elite and upper classes. Also, it was further deducted that LUX has both female and male users while males chiefly evaded using Dove because of its ultra-greasy as well as sticky outcomes even following being washed away.
When studying past studies conducted with the same independent and dependent variables, yet on the divergent product category and focusing on the diverse geographical areas of the respondents, more or less the same findings remains noticed that solely appealing or good-looking celebrity or celeb with which respondents remain attached emotionally can never bring the anticipated outcomes for a given brand, such factors of celeb shall solely work whenever such celebrities remain able of brilliantly, completely as well as beautifully transferring the meaning or even message of the brand they have endorsed, their style of communication has to be highly persuasive as well as attention-grabbing then their respective presence in such commercials will lead to desired or positive outcomes otherwise never.
Further, it is remarked that whereas studying past studies which in sub-continent, celeb sponsored or endorsement culture remains on a climax that in the rest of the globe and this is because the reason that in such sub-continent, the mainstream population is belonging to young individuals or youth as well as youngsters remain increasingly engaged in being trendy or in adopting or practicing fashion or be appearing like celebs in order to influence them, such celebrity endorsement remains the utmost winning strategy of marketing as well as branding utilized by marketers to promote their brands with respect to purchasing of such brands or in regards to a market share of the brand increase.
The research study concluded that celebrity sponsored posts remain increasingly attractive than the non-celeb sponsored posts. The study respondents further voted hat the best medium to watch the celeb sponsored posts remains television and secondly, the Internet. It is additionally deducted that the highest relationship was recorded between consumer perception and buying behaviour. The last relationship was discovered between celebrity attractiveness and consumer perception. There remained a significant relationship among all the celebrity attributes. It is eventually deduced that there remains a significant relationship between celebrity sponsored posts and buying behaviour. Clearly, respondents demonstrated that they often buy such services and products, endorsed by celebs.
The findings of the study demonstrate that the celeb endorsement has a sensible impact on consumers according to their attitudes alongside the intention of buying. Physical attractiveness, credibility besides congruence of a celeb with reference to sponsored posts, or endorsed advertisement all have a significant impact on the perception of the consumer regarding the advertised item. It is additionally highlighted that celeb endorsement adverts are driving sales up and hence the product purchase alike, individuals prefer buying the services and products increasingly in case they stay sponsored or endorsed by celebs and it showcases that the present-day consumers remain conscious as well as influenced by the different medium of celeb sponsored posts.
In terms of recommendations; as per this study, while utilizing celebrities to sponsor brands and endorse, marketers need to ensure they accomplish such criteria as:
Marketers must employ such celebrities for their brands with a repute of being credible and trustworthy. Celebrities, when transferring meaning to the service and product that they are endorsing, they have to depict realities. Celebrities with any type of negative publicity should never endorse brands, services, or products. Finally, celebrities with desirable expertise, need to endorse the brands since consumers only get influenced by such an undeniable level of expertise.
6. Limits and Further Research Areas
Since the research stood carried out in the three Universities (IQR, CAMS, and SZABIST), the consumers’ perspective outside these Universities stood excluded. Moreover, the study stood restricted by the fact that the majority of these respondents stood young individuals; persons beyond the age of 30 years and above were left out since only eleven respondents were above 30+ years. This would be a limitation since those left out would never be considered including those whose opinions about celebrity endorsement would be divergent. The respondents were further chosen who only belonged to an urban area, with a comprehension of these issues, individuals of rural regions, therefore, would be overlooked.
Another limitation of the study is that nearly every existing studies on the topic have few or more barriers which were carried on to this current study through the literature review. Some of these limitations are that endorsed celeb opinions have never been taken in this current research. Also, the meeting of the researcher with the creative team of agencies stood infeasible. Moreover, the research is emphasized solely on respondents from the three universities. Further, the time for conducting this study was insufficient and that sample size for covering the whole population remains comparatively small and this was the reason the findings of this current study remained insufficient for organizations to follow when going for celeb selection for their respective brands. The responses were further drawn purely from the young population of the universities (Ahmed, Mir & Farooq, 2012).
Future research is needed to cover a large scope and area of the study. This is because the present study and the existing studies have used less sample size and which limits ages and hence locking out the opinions of some older generations. Such empirical studies should also include the creative team of agencies which has never been possible with the current studies.
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